Robótica, construcción modular y contratos basados en el rendimiento, claves para la industria de la construcción en 2017. 

La digitalización o transformación digital llega a todos los sectores. En la industria de la construcción tiene especial importancia dado que la mecanización y estandarización de muchos de sus procesos pueden suponer una verdadera revolución en el sector. Hace unas semanas estuvimos analizando necesidades y realidades de la construcción 4.0 en Valladolid (BIMTecnia),¿pero qué tendencias veremos en este sentido durante 2017?

Durante este año, según los expertos, veremos grandes avances en robótica, construcción modular y contratos basados en el rendimiento. Así Kenny Ingram, Director de Industria Global de Construcción y Contratación en IFS, describe estas tres grandes tendencias y oportunidades para la industria en Europa, Estados Unidos y Asia, para que las empresas las aprovechen y logren beneficios en 2017.

  • Los contratos basados en el servicio 

Dentro de cinco años, el 35% de los propietarios de activos se habrá cambiado a los contratos basados en el rendimiento o desempeño. Además, de acuerdo con un informe de 2015 sobre transparencia en el mercado, la gestión del ciclo de vida del producto crecerá hasta una tasa del 8,1% en 2022, lo que significa que los contratos en el sector de la construcción, como en otros sectores, también serán cada vez más complejos y basados en el servicio.

Pero lo fundamental para las empresas de la construcción es ser muy claros sobre el propósito principal de su activo. Por ejemplo, una empresa podría ganar el contrato para construir un hospital, garantizando la provisión de un número determinado de camas.

Internet de las Cosas permite a las empresas de construcción medir, con mucho más detalle y calidad, aspectos claves del sector, como la disponibilidad, la fiabilidad, la capacidad de mantenimiento, la capacidad de soporte, el coste de propiedad y el resultado final.

  • La construcción modular y la impresión 3D mejoran la calidad

En 2022, más de la mitad de todos los proyectos del sector utilizarán la construcción modular externa y la impresión 3D. Se trata de módulos que ofrecen más de 30 o 40 años de vida. En Singapur ha aparecido recientemente un nuevo tipo de construcción modular.

El PPVC (prefabricado, pre-acabado y construcción volumétrica), que consiste en construir, en una fábrica, bloques de apartamentos completos.

Según un informe de McKinsey, las compañías que usan este nuevo modelo consiguen un ahorro de personal y de tiempo de un 50%. Además, el PPVC produce una mínima contaminación atmosférica y acústica y mejora la seguridad.

Las empresas tradicionales que quieran cambiar a la construcción modular, necesitarán un modelo de negocio diferente, en el que será vital la incorporación de nuevos profesionales, experiencia en el negocio y procesos ágiles e integrados como en el sector de fabricación.

En cuanto a la impresión 3D, se está convirtiendo en la regla y no en la excepción para muchas empresas. Gartner ha pronosticado un crecimiento particularmente fuerte para la impresión 3D en el sector empresarial. Y es que, en todo el mundo, en 2016 las empresas han adquirido más del doble de impresoras 3D que en 2015. Además, Gartner prevé que el total de envíos mundiales de impresoras 3D para compañías y consumidores llegará a una tasa de crecimiento anual del 98,5% en 2020.

  • Gracias a la robótica, construir puentes ya no será tan peligroso

En los próximos cinco años, el 25% del trabajo en la industria de la construcción será realizado por robots. Un informe de 2016 señala a China como un excelente ejemplo, que impulsa el crecimiento en robótica industrial: “Desde 2013, la adquisición de robots industriales polivalentes en China se ha duplicado, aproximadamente, hasta los 75.000 en 2015, y se espera alcanzar los 150.000 en 2018, según la Federación Internacional de Robótica”, destaca Ingram.

La firma estadounidense Construction Robotics ha creado el robot de albañilería SAM100, una nueva máquina de construcción que ayuda con la tarea repetitiva y ardua de levantar y colocar cada ladrillo. Además, la construcción de puentes es un trabajo peligroso que consume mucho tiempo y requiere seguros costosos.

En definitiva, para aprovechar la oportunidad, la acción más urgente de las empresas es reconocer el cambio y comenzar a establecer una estrategia de transformación digital.

Atreverse a experimentar y usar el Diseño Gráfico, la Realidad Aumentada y la Realidad Virtual serán de gran importancia para hacer competitivas a las compañías en el sector de la construcción.

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